EAST EGAP holds 16th Meeting

The 16th Meeting of the EAST Expert Group on ATM and ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP) took place on Wednesday 1st September 2021.  Due to the Covid-19 situation, it was conducted as a virtual meeting and was chaired by Graham Mott of the LINK Scheme.

  • Europol gave a central assessment of the ATM physical attack situation in Europe
  • National Threat Assessments were shared by representatives from 19 countries:
CountryUpdate(s) Given By
AustriaCriminal Intelligence Service
BrazilTecBan
BulgariaNational Police
CroatiaMUP Croatia
Czech RepublicCriminal Police
FranceGendarmerie - OCLDI
GermanyBKA
GreeceHellenic Police
HungaryNational Bureau of Investigation
IrelandAn Garda Siochana
ItalyMIB
LuxembourgService de Police Judiciare
NetherlandsNational Police
PolandNational Police
PortugalPolicia Judiciare
South AfricaSABRIC
SpainGuardia Civil / National Police / Autonomous Police of Catalonia
SwitzerlandFederal Office of Police (FEDPOL)
United KingdomSaferCash / West Midlands Police (ROCU)

Experts from the following organisations also participated in the meeting:  ATM Safe, Barclays, Cyprus Police, Danish National Police, Feerica S.A., Gunnebo, Guarda Nacional Republicana, HSBC, Mactwin Security, Malta Police Force, NatWest Group, National Bureau of Intelligence (HU), National Bureau of Investigation (FI), NCR, Oberthur Cash Protection, Policia de Seguranca Publica,  Scotia Security Group, Spinnaker.

EAST EGAP is a European specialist expert forum for discussion of ATM,  ATS and CIT related physical attack trends, attack methodologies and counter-measures, threat protection, and for the provision of regularly updated lists of manufacturers of ATM protective devices. The latest lists can be downloaded from the ‘Stained Banknotes’ page on this website (bottom of page).

The Group meets twice each year to enable in-depth and technical discussion to take place. The areas covered include:

  • The latest incidents and criminal MOs
  • The collection and distribution of best practice guidelines
  • The evolution of threats and counter-measures
  • Lessons from and on law enforcement

National & Global Fraud Intelligence sharing – 4th Interim EAST Meeting

A fourth Interim Meeting of EAST National and Global Members took place on Wednesday 9th June 2021. Due to the Covid-19 situation, it was conducted as a virtual meeting. The meeting was chaired by Graham Mott from the LINK Scheme.  The key focus was on the sharing of global, regional, and national, payment and terminal fraud intelligence.

Law enforcement overviews were provided by Europol, the Gulf Cooperation Council Police (GCCPOL), the United States Secret Service (USSS) and INTERPOL.  Two presentations were made by Europol: one from the European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) covered recent successful cross-border operations; the other covered Physical ATM attacks across Europe.  The GCCPOL presentation covered payment and fraud issues seen by their 6 member countries focussing on Technological Fraud (crimes committed using different forms/types of machines and technology) and Non-Technological Fraud (conducted directly against the victim. The USSS presentation covered US Fraud Trends (2020/2021), along with prevention/detection techniques, and the INTERPOL presentation covered recent issues relating to financial crimes, money laundering, and asset tracing.

Private sector fraud intelligence updates were received from 31 countries, either directly or via regional/global updates by Citi, HSBC and Worldline.  Each update covered Fraud Types, Fraud Origin, Due Diligence and Physical Attacks (ATM, ATS and CIT).  A key issue, highlighted by most of the countries, continues to be the importance of raising consumer awareness to counter the rising threats related to social engineering.

EAST Fraud Update 2-2021 will be produced during July, based on the country updates provided at the Interim EAST Meeting.  EAST Fraud, Payment and Physical Attack Updates are available on the EAST Intranet to EAST Members.

The next meeting of this group, scheduled for 6th October 2021, will also be a virtual Interim meeting.  The 1st EAST Global Congress is now scheduled to be held in February 2022, dependant on the prevailing status of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Terminal fraud attacks in Europe drop during the Covid-19 pandemic

Terminal fraud attacks in Europe drop during the Covid-19 pandemicEAST has published a European Payment Terminal Crime Report covering 2020 which shows that terminal related fraud attacks have dropped significantly during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Terminal related fraud attacks were down 64% (from 18,217 to 6,523 incidents). Card skimming fell to another all-time low (down from 1,496 to 656 incidents) and transaction reversal fraud (TRF) at ATMs decreased by 97% (down from 9,054 to just 250 incidents). Total losses of €218 million were reported, down 14% from the €249 million reported during 2019. Most losses remain international issuer losses due to card skimming, which were €183 million.

EAST Executive Director Lachlan Gunn said, “2020 was a highly unusual year due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and crime and fraud patterns changed accordingly.  While it is good news to see such a significant fall in terminal fraud attacks, there is concern that explosive attacks at ATMs have only fallen by 6%, and that related losses are up by 39%.  The average cash loss for a solid explosive attack is estimated at €28,218, and collateral damage to equipment and buildings can be significant.  There are also major safety issues.  Despite national lockdowns and border closures, mobile organised crime groups continued to operate across Europe.

ATM related physical attacks were down 19% (from 4,571 to 3,722 incidents).  Attacks due to ram raids and ATM burglary were down 33% (from 1,122 to 749 incidents).  ATM explosive attacks (including explosive gas and solid explosive attacks) were down 6% (from 977 to 923 incidents).  Losses due to ATM related physical attacks were €22.4 million, a 1% increase from the €22.1 million reported during 2019.  47% of these losses were due to explosive attacks, which were up 39% from €10.49 to €14.59 million.

ATM malware and logical attacks against ATMs were up 44% (from 35 to 129) and all the reported attacks were Black Box attacks.  A Black Box attack is the connection of an unauthorised device which sends dispense commands directly to the ATM cash dispenser, in order to ‘cash-out’ or ‘jackpot’ the ATM.  Related losses were up 14% from €1.09 to €1.24 million.  Most such attacks remain unsuccessful.

A summary of the report statistics under the main headings is in the table below.

The full Crime Report is available to EAST Members (National, Global and Associate)

EAST EGAP holds 15th Meeting

The 15th Meeting of the EAST Expert Group on ATM and ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP) took place on Wednesday 3rd March 2021.  Due to the Covid-19 situation, it was conducted as a virtual meeting and was chaired by Graham Mott of  the LINK Scheme.

The meeting was attended by 54 key representatives from Law Enforcement, Terminal Deployers, ATM Networks and Security Equipment Vendors.

  • Europol gave a central assessment of the ATM physical attack situation in Europe.
  • The ECB gave an update on the latest bank notes in circulation, cash usage statistics, and Intelligent Banknote Neutralisation Systems (IBNS) used in the Euro area.
  • National Threat Assessments were shared by representatives from 17 countries:
CountryUpdate(s) Given By
AustriaCriminal Intelligence Service
BrazilTecBan
FinlandAutomatia / National Bureau of Investigation
FranceGendarmerie - OCLDI
GermanyBKA
GreeceHellenic Police
HungaryNational Bureau of Investigation
IrelandAn Garda Siochana
ItalyMIB
LuxembourgService de Police Judiciare
NetherlandsNational Police
PolandNational Police HQ
PortugalPolicia Judiciare / Policia de Seguranca Publica
RomaniaRomanian Police - CID
SpainGuardia Civil / Autonomous Police of Catalonia
SwitzerlandFederal Office of Police (FEDPOL)
United KingdomSaferCash / West Midlands Police (ROCU)

Experts from the following organisations also particpated in the meeting:  ATM Safe, Barclays, Cennox, Diebold Nixdorf, Feerica S.A., Gunnebo, HSBC, Malta Police Force, NCR, Oberthur Cash Protection, Payment Services Austria (PSA), Petersen-Bach A/S, Professional Witnesses Group,  Spinnaker, Swedish Police, TMD Security.

EAST EGAP is a European specialist expert forum for discussion of ATM,  ATS and CIT related physical attack trends, attack methodologies and counter-measures, threat protection, and for the provision of regularly updated lists of manufacturers of ATM protective devices. The latest lists can be downloaded from the ‘Stained Banknotes’ page on this website (bottom of page).

The Group meets twice each year to enable in-depth and technical discussion to take place. The areas covered include:

  • The latest incidents and criminal MOs
  • The collection and distribution of best practice guidelines
  • The evolution of threats and counter-measures
  • Lessons from and on law enforcement

3rd Interim EAST Meeting – National and Global Members

A third Interim Meeting of EAST National and Global Members took place on Wednesday 10th February 2021. Due to the Covid-19 situation, it was conducted as a virtual meeting. The meeting was chaired by Martine Hemmerijckx from Worldline.

Law enforcement overviews were provided by Europol and the Gulf Cooperation Council Police (GCCPOL).  Two presentations were made by Europol: one from the European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) covered recent successful cross-border operations; the other covered Physical ATM attacks across Europe.  The GCCPOL presentation covered payment and fraud issues seen by their 6 member countries – it focussed on Technological Fraud (crimes committed using different forms/types of machines and technology) and Non-Technological Fraud (conducted directly against the victim).

Updates were received from 26 countries, either directly or via a global update by Worldline.  Each update covered Fraud Types, Fraud Origin, Due Diligence and Physical Attacks (ATM, ATS and CIT).  A key issue, highlighted by most of the countries, is the importance of raising consumer awareness to counter the rising threats related to social engineering.

EAST Fraud Update 1-2021 will be produced during March, based on the country updates provided at the Interim EAST Meeting.  EAST Fraud, Payment and Physical Attack Updates are available on the EAST Intranet to EAST Members.

The next meeting of this group, scheduled for 9th June 2021, will also be a virtual Interim meeting.  The 1st EAST Global Congress is now scheduled to be held in October 2021, dependant on the prevailing status of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Preventing Physical ATM Attacks – advice in all EU Languages

physical ATM attacksTo counter the increase in physical ATM attacks in Europe, affecting an increasing number of European countries, the European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) and Europol organised a conference (January 2019) bringing together law enforcement and public and private partners to look at the prevention of this crime. EAST was represented at the event by Executive Director Lachlan Gunn.  The output was a recommendation paper summarising the conclusions of the conference and aimed at raising authorities’ awareness of physical ATM attacks and preventive measures.

This recommendation paper has now been translated into all the EU languages and is available for download from the EUCPN website.

In the most recent European Payment Terminal Crime Report published by EAST on 13 October 2020, and covering the first 6 months of this year, ATM explosive attacks (including explosive gas and solid explosive attacks) were up 0.4% (from 503 to 505 incidents). Losses due to physical ATM attacks were €12.6 million, an 11% increase from the €11.4 million reported during the same period in 2019. This increase was driven by a rise in losses due to explosive and gas attacks, which were up 49% from €5.1 million to €7.6 million.

Black Box attacks increase across Europe

Black BoxEAST has just published a European Payment Terminal Crime Report covering the first six months of 2020 which reports a sharp increase in Black Box attacks on European ATMs.

ATM malware and logical attacks against ATMs were up 269% (from 35 to 129) and all the reported attacks were Black Box attacks. A Black Box attack is the connection of an unauthorised device which sends dispense commands directly to the ATM cash dispenser, in order to ‘cash-out’ or ‘jackpot’ the ATM. Related losses were up from less than €1,000, to just over €1 million.

EAST Executive Director Lachlan Gunn said, “Overall crime at terminals has decreased during the lockdown phase of the pandemic. While this rise in Black Box attacks is of concern, most such attacks remain unsuccessful. Our Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF) is focussed on addressing this issue, with close cooperation between industry partners and law enforcement. In January 2019 EGAF worked with Europol to update a document, published by Europol, entitled ‘Guidance & recommendations regarding logical attacks on ATMs’. This is currently available in English, French, German, Russian, Spanish and Turkish”.

Terminal related fraud attacks were down 66% (from 10,723 to 3,631 incidents). Card skimming fell to another all-time low (down from 731 to 321 incidents) and transaction reversal fraud (TRF) at ATMs decreased by 97% (down from 3,405 to just 108 incidents). Total losses of €109 million were reported, down 12% from the €124 million reported during the same period in 2019.

ATM related physical attacks were down 23% (from 2,376 to 1,829 incidents). Attacks due to ram raids and ATM burglary were down 34% (from 610 to 405 incidents) and ATM explosive attacks (including explosive gas and solid explosive attacks) were up 0.4% (from 503 to 505 incidents). Losses due to ATM related physical attacks were €12.6 million, an 11% increase from the €11.4 million reported during the same period in 2019. This increase was driven by a rise in losses due to explosive and gas attacks, which were up 49% from €5.1 million to €7.6 million.

A summary of the report statistics under the main headings is in the table below.

The full Crime Report is available to EAST Members (National, Global and Associate)

 

Terminal fraud attacks increase in Europe

terminal fraudEAST has just published a European Payment Terminal Crime Report covering 2019 which reports that terminal fraud attacks were up 35%.

Terminal related fraud attacks rose from 13,511 to 18,217 incidents, mainly driven by an 87% increase in ATM transaction reversal fraud attacks (up from 4,843 to 9,054 incidents), while card skimming incidents fell 21% to an all-time low (down from 1,883 to 1,496 incidents).

EAST Executive Director Lachlan Gunn said, “Despite the overall rise in terminal fraud incidents, total reported losses were almost unchanged. Transaction reversal fraud losses did rise from €2.6 million to €5.2 million, but the continued drop in skimming incidents has helped to keep the overall loss position stable.”

Total losses of €249 million were reported, up 1% from the €247 million reported in 2018. Overall losses due to card skimming were unchanged and losses due to card trapping were down by 14% (from €2.9 million to €2.5 million).

ATM related physical attacks were up 0.5% (from 4,579 to 4,571 incidents). Attacks due to ram raids and ATM burglary were down 11% (from 1,256 to 1,122 incidents) and ATM explosive attacks (including explosive gas and solid explosive attacks) were down 7% (from 1,052 to 977 incidents). Losses due to ATM related physical attacks were €22 million, a 39% decrease from the €36 million reported in 2018.

The average cash loss for a robbery is estimated at €20,369 per incident, the average cash loss per explosive or gas attack is €10,735 and the average cash loss for a ram raid or burglary attack is €9,377. These figures do not take into account collateral damage to equipment or buildings, which can be significant and often exceeds the value of the cash lost in successful attacks.

A total of 140 ATM malware and logical attacks were reported, down from 157 in 2018, an 11% decrease. All the reported attacks were ‘cash out’ or ‘jackpotting’ attacks. In 118 attacks equipment typically referred to as a ‘black box’ was used, and malware was used in the other 22 attacks. Related losses were up 142%, from €0.45 million to €1.09 million.

A summary of the report statistics under the main headings is in the table below.

The full Crime Report is available to EAST Members (National, Global and Associate)

EAST Publishes European Fraud Update 1-2020

EAST has just published its first European Fraud Update for 2020. This is based on country crime updates given by representatives of 18 countries in the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA), and 2 non-SEPA countries, at the 50th EAST meeting held in Vienna on 12th February 2020.

Payment fraud issues were reported by eighteen countries. Seven countries reported CNP fraud occurring worldwide. One reported that the card data is either bought in bulk or obtained via card testing/BIN attacks. The attackers use scripts/bots (not real people) to conduct the fraud. Four countries reported BIN attacks. One reported that they are originating from the Middle East for the first time and another reported them in relation to both CP and CNP fraud, with losses reported in the USA, the UK and Brazil. Two countries reported Account Takeover Fraud, one of them in connection with SIM swapping.

Six countries reported phishing. One reported the use of fake emails by criminals to impersonate bank customers, claiming that their bank account details have changed. Another reported that online banking was targeted, and a third country reported phishing using social networks, with related fraud occurring in China. Three countries reported SMS phishing (Smishing). One of them reported this related to token validation transactions – the IP addresses are in Morocco and the fraud occurs in an EU country with losses via Western Union.

To date in 2020 the EAST Payments Task Force (EPTF) has published one related Payment Alert.

ATM malware and logical attacks were reported by twelve countries – one reported successful ATM malware attacks where ‘Cutlet Maker’ was used, and ten reported the usage (or attempted usage) of ‘black-box’ devices to allow the unauthorised dispensing of cash. To date in 2020 the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF) has published one related Fraud Alert.

Card skimming at ATMs was reported by ten countries, and the downward trend continues. Six countries reported the usage of ‘M3 – Card Reader Internal Skimming devices’, and the usage of ‘M1 – Overlay Skimming Devices’ and ‘M2 – Throat Inlay Skimming Devices’ was also reported. Skimming attacks on other terminal types were reported by eight countries. Four reported attacks on unattended payment terminals (UPTs) at petrol stations, and three reported attacks at railway ticket machines. To date in 2020 EAST EGAF has published four related Fraud Alerts.

Year to date International skimming related losses were reported in 14 countries and territories outside SEPA and in 4 within SEPA. The top three locations where such losses were reported remain Indonesia, India and the USA.

Five countries reported card trapping attacks, one of them reporting a new method that allows several cards to be captured in one attack. Three countries reported transaction reversal fraud (TRF) incidents. To date in 2020 EAST EGAF has published two related Fraud Alerts.

Ram raids and ATM burglary were reported by eleven countries and eleven countries reported explosive gas attacks, one of which resulted in a fatality. Eight countries reported solid explosive attacks. The usage of Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) for solid explosive attacks continues to increase across Europe. Mixing TAPT is a complicated procedure that requires good knowledge of the chemicals, as there is a danger of setting off an unexpected explosion. The spread of such attacks is of great concern to the industry due to the risk to life and to the significant amount of collateral damage to equipment and buildings.
To date in 2020 the EAST Expert Group on ATM & ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP) has published two related Physical Attack Alerts.

The full European Fraud Update is available to EAST Members (National, Global and Associate).

EAST Publishes European Fraud Update 3-2019

European FraudEAST has just published its third European Fraud Update for 2019. This is based on country crime updates given by representatives of 16 countries in the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA), and 4 non-SEPA countries, at the 49th EAST Meeting held in London on 8th October 2019.

Payment fraud issues were reported by seventeen countries. Social engineering is a key concern. Seven countries reported phishing attacks. One of them stated that fraudsters are using phishing to get targets for fake web campaigns where consumers can win money, and another reported fake web surveys aimed at getting consumer data. In one country the quality of vishing calls is improving, where the people making the spoof calls are very believable and often have local accents from the customer’s home area. Impersonation fraud was reported by four countries – in one of them police officers are impersonated, and another reported spoof calls being received by customers from bank call centres.

Card Not Present (CNP) fraud was reported by six countries. One of them reported CNP fraud at digital media players. Contactless fraud was reported by two countries – in one of them it is related to lost and stolen cards, and in the other card present (CP) transactions are being made at small merchants up to the allowed limit. To date in 2019 the EAST Payments Task Force (EPTF)  has issued five related Payment Alerts.

ATM malware and logical attacks were reported by five countries – one reported a new way of getting malware onto an ATM, that did not succeed, and four reported the usage (or attempted usage) of ‘black-box’ devices to allow the unauthorised dispensing of cash. To date in 2019 the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF) has published seven related Fraud Alerts.

Card skimming at ATMs was reported by thirteen countries. Overall skimming incidents in Europe continue to decline. Three countries reported the usage of ‘M3 – Card Reader Internal Skimming devices’, and the most recent variants continue to be made of transparent plastic. To date in 2019 EAST EGAF has published thirteen related Fraud Alerts. Year to date International skimming related losses were reported in 41 countries and territories outside SEPA and in 4 within SEPA. The top three locations where such losses were reported remain Indonesia, India and the USA.

Four countries reported card trapping attacks, one of them reporting such attacks at fake terminals, designed to resemble lobby door opening devices at bank branches.

Ram raids and ATM burglary were reported by nine countries and twelve countries reported explosive gas attacks. After one such attack collateral damage of over €200,000 was reported. Six countries reported solid explosive attacks. The usage of Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) for solid explosive attacks is increasing across Europe. This explosive is also known as the ‘Mother of Satan’. Mixing TAPT is a complicated procedure that requires good knowledge of the chemicals, as there is a danger of setting off an unexpected explosion.

The spread of such attacks is of great concern to the industry due to the risk to life and to the significant amount of collateral damage to equipment and buildings. To date in 2019 the EAST Expert Group on ATM & ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP) has published nine related Physical Attack Alerts.

The full European Fraud Update is available to EAST Members (National and Associate).