ATM Physical Attacks in Europe on the increase

ATM physical attacksEAST has just published a European Payment Terminal Crime Report covering 2018 which reports that ATM physical attacks have risen for the fourth consecutive year.

ATM related physical attacks rose 27% when compared with 2017 (up from 3,584 to 4,549 incidents).  Within this total ATM explosive attacks (including explosive gas and solid explosive attacks) were down 3% (down from 1,081 to 1,052 incidents).  Explosive attacks remain a cause for concern as the number of countries reporting them has risen from ten in 2017 to eleven in 2018.  Such attacks result in extensive collateral damage and can pose a risk to life.

Losses due to ATM related physical attacks were €36 million, a 16% increase from the €31 million reported during 2017.  The average cash loss per explosive or gas attack is estimated at €17,103, the average cash loss for a robbery is estimated at €13,682 per incident and the average cash loss for a ram raid or burglary attack is estimated at €13,198.  These figures do not take into account collateral damage to equipment or buildings, which can be significant and often exceeds the value of the cash lost in successful attacks.

EAST Executive Director Lachlan Gunn said, “The success rate for solid explosive attacks is of particular concern – we estimate that the average cash loss per solid explosive attack is €27,065.  Such attacks continue to spread geographically with two countries reporting them for the first time in early 2019.  Our Expert Group on ATM and ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP) is actively monitoring the situation and provides a cross-border platform for the industry and law enforcement to share related intelligence and measures that can be taken to mitigate the risks.”

Payment terminal related fraud attacks fell 36% when compared with 2017 (down from 20,971 to 13,511 incidents).  This fall was mainly driven by a 26% decrease in card skimming incidents (down from 2,556 to 1,883 incidents) and by a 66% fall in transaction reversal fraud incidents (down from 14,098 to 4,843 incidents).

Losses due to payment terminal related fraud attacks fell 30% when compared with 2017 (down from €353 million to €247 million).  Within these totals international skimming losses fell by 27% (down from €280 million to €205 million) and domestic skimming losses were down 44% (from €64 million to €36 million).

A total of 157 ATM malware and logical attacks were reported, down from 192 in 2017, an 18% decrease.  156 of the attacks were logical attacks where equipment typically referred to as a ‘black box’ is used to send dispense commands directly to the ATM cash dispenser in order to cash-out the ATM.  Related losses were down 70%, from €1.52 million to €0.45 million.

A summary of the report statistics under the main headings is in the table below.

The full Crime Report is available to EAST Members (National and Associate)

EAST Publishes European Fraud Update 1-2019

European Fraud Update 1-2019EAST has published its first European Fraud Update for 2019.  This is based on country crime updates given by representatives of 17 countries in the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA), and 4 non-SEPA countries, at the 47th EAST meeting held in Lisbon on 6th February 2019.

Payment fraud issues were reported by 20 countries.  Three countries reported phishing attacks. One of them reported that the fraudsters are managing to obtain online banking credentials and one time passwords (OTPs) for cash withdrawals at ATMs, as well as managing to make minor purchases through digital payment apps.  Another country reported criminals taking remote control of people’s computers and then gaining access to their bank account(s).  This has led to a consumer awareness campaign highlighting that, in addition to never asking for a customer’s PIN, banks will also never ask for remote PC access to be allowed.  One country reported that, since mobile operators started to implement new services, there has been a growing trend of SIM card duplication.  The SIM cards of phones used for financial transaction authorisation are duplicated, ensuring that the original phone does not work.  This means that the OTPs are sent to the duplicate phone, not the genuine one.

ATM malware and logical attacks were reported by 8 countries.  Three of the countries reported ATM related malware and one of them advised that a new malware variant ‘HelloWorld’ was found.  Eight countries reported the usage (or attempted usage) of ‘black-box’ devices to allow the unauthorised dispensing of cash.  To date in 2019 the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF) has published two related Fraud Alerts.

Card skimming at ATMs was reported by fourteen countries.  One country reported the first use of a mini M2 – Throat Inlay Skimming Device.  Two countries reported skimming related arrests.  Skimming attacks on other terminal types were reported by 5 countries, three of which reported such attacks on unattended payment terminals (UPTs) at petrol stations and two reported attacks using POS terminals.  To date in 2019 EAST EGAF has published three related Fraud Alerts.

Six countries reported cash trapping attacks, one of them reporting that criminals continue to switch their focus from transaction reversal fraud (TRF) attacks to cash trapping.

Ram raids and ATM burglary were reported by 8 countries and 9 countries reported explosive gas attacks.  Nine countries also reported solid explosive attacks, and this type of attack continues to spread with 4 countries reporting such attacks for the first time.  The spread of such attacks is of great concern to the industry due to the risk to life and to the significant amount of collateral damage to equipment and buildings.  To date in 2019 the EAST Expert Group on ATM & ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP) has published five related Physical Attack Alerts.  EAST EGAP has also just published new Terminal Physical Attack Definitions and Terminology to help industry and law enforcement when reporting attacks against ATMs and other terminals.  These can be downloaded from the EAST website.

The full Fraud Update is available to EAST Members (National and Associate).

47th EAST Meeting hosted by SIBS in Lisbon

The 47th Meeting of EAST National Members was hosted by SIBS at the SANA Metropolitan Hotel in Lisbon on 6th February 2019. National country crime updates were provided by 21 countries, and a global update by HSBC.  Topics covered included payment fraud and the evolution of payment technology, ATM malware and logical attacks, terminal related fraud attacks and ATM related physical attacks.

Presentations were also given by the EAST Payments Task Force (EPTF) and the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF).  An update was given by the EAST Expert Group on ATM and ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP).

EAST Fraud Update 1-2019 will be produced in early March, based on the national country crime updates provided at the meeting.  EAST Fraud Updates are available on the EAST Website to EAST Members.

EAST FCS Terminal Fraud Seminar 2018

terminal fraudAn EAST FCS Terminal Fraud Seminar was held on 10th October 2018 in London, co-located with RBRs ATM & Cyber Security 2018 Conference. The interactive and successful event focused on two key outputs of the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF):

  • Guidelines regarding logical attacks on ATMs
  • Standardised fraud definitions

An introduction to EGAF by the Chair, Otto de Jong, was followed by a presentation by EAST’s Executive Director Lachlan Gunn, covering the latest EAST fraud statistics from the H1 2018 European Payment Terminal Crime Report. This highlighted that losses due to card fraud at payment terminals have fallen to the lowest level since 2005. Total losses of €107 million were reported and the decrease is primarily due to a fall in losses due to card skimming (down from €118 million to €104 million). Overall payment terminal related fraud incidents were down 43% (from 11,934 to 6,790). Within this total card skimming incidents were down 19% (from 1,221 to 985) and well below the peak of 5,743 incidents reported during the same period in 2010.

Juan Jesus Leon Cobos of GMV then covered the evolution of ‘Cash-out’/jackpotting attacks, sharing the latest trends from Latin America.  This was followed by a presentation from Tobias-Christian Wieloch of the European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) at Europol which focused on Europol’s published ‘Guidance & Recommendations regarding Logical & Malware Attacks on ATMs’, and an update to it that will soon be available.

Nick Webber, an independent forensic expert, then shared insights into card shimming and ‘wedge’ attacks, with a particular focus on the UK experience.

The final presentation came from Ben Birtwistle of the Royal Bank of Scotland and Claire Shufflebotham of TMD Security, who jointly covered the existing fraud definitions published by EAST, and steps being taken to update and simplify the definitions using graphics, as well as the addition of criminal benefits for each fraud type.  Otto de Jong then summarised the event and what would be taken forward for future discusson.

Attendance to the regular EAST EGAF work group meetings is limited and this event enabled active participation and input from a much wider pool of expertise.  Due to the positive response received from delegates, this Terminal Fraud Seminar is expected to be repeated in 2019.

More information on the event, which was sponsored by NCR, can be found on the EAST Events Website


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2018 EAST FCS Terminal Fraud Seminar Sponsor

 

 

46th EAST Meeting hosted by LINK in London

EASTThe 46th Meeting of EAST National Members was hosted by the LINK scheme in London on 9th October 2018. National country crime updates were provided by 18 countries, and a global update by HSBC.  Topics covered included payment fraud and the evolution of payment technology, ATM malware and logical attacks, terminal related fraud attacks and ATM related physical attacks.

Europol gave a presentation which included information on the latest Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2018.

Presentations were also given by the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF) and the EAST Expert Group on ATM and ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP).  An update was given by the EAST Payments Task Force (EPTF).

EAST Fraud Update 3-2018 will be produced later this month, based on the national country crime updates provided at the meeting.  EAST Fraud Updates are available on the EAST Website to EAST Members.

Card fraud losses fall to 13 year low

EAST has just published a European Payment Terminal Crime Report covering the first six months of 2018 which reports that losses due to card fraud at payment terminals have fallen to the lowest level since 2005.

Total losses of €107 million were reported and the decrease is primarily due to a fall in losses due to card skimming (down from €118 million to €104 million). Overall payment terminal related fraud incidents were down 43% (from 11,934 to 6,790). Within this total card skimming incidents were down 19% (from 1,221 to 985) and well below the peak of 5,743 incidents reported during the same period in 2010.

EAST Executive Director Lachlan Gunn said, “The significant drop in card skimming incidents and losses reflects the continued effectiveness of EMV, as well as the work that has been put in by payment terminal deployers and card issuers with regard to counter-measures such as geo-blocking, fraud monitoring capabilities and fraud detection. Europe led the way with EMV, which is now a global standard, and all stakeholders in the payment card industry are benefitting from the increased security.”

Logical attacks against ATMs were down 46% (from 114 to 61) and all the reported ‘jackpotting’ attacks were ‘black box’ attacks.  Related losses were down 83% (from €1.51 million to €0.25 million) reflecting the fact that many of these attacks are unsuccessful.

ATM related physical attacks were up 21% (from 1,696 to 2,046 incidents).  Attacks due to ram raids and ATM burglary were up 26% (from 470 to 590 incidents) and ATM explosive attacks (including explosive gas and solid explosive attacks) were up 2% (from 481 to 490 incidents).  Losses due to ATM related physical attacks were €15.1 million, a 24% increase from the €12.2 million reported during the same period in 2017.

The average cash loss per explosive or gas attack is estimated at €14,748, the average cash loss for a robbery is €14,613 per incident and the average cash loss for a ram raid or burglary attack is €12,275.  These figures do not take into account collateral damage to equipment or buildings, which can be significant and often exceeds the value of the cash lost in successful attacks.

A summary of the report statistics under the main headings is in the table below.

card fraud

The full Crime Report is available to EAST Members (National and Associate)

Terminal Fraud

terminal fraudWhile most payment transactions take place seamlessly and without issue, financial criminals remain active and terminal fraud is a problem for payment terminal deployers, ATM deployers, card issuers, equipment manufacturers and vendors, software providers, law enforcement agencies and other payment industry stakeholders.  On 10th October 2018 the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EAST EGAF) will hold an open Financial Crime & Security (FCS) Seminar in London to focus on the issue.  EAST EGAF is chaired by Otto de Jong of ING Bank.

EAST Executive Director Lachlan Gunn said ‘EAST EGAF was formed as a working group in 2013 and will hold its 16th Meeting on Wednesday 19th September 2018 in Amsterdam. Attendance at EAST EGAF meetings is restricted in accordance with the group’s Terms of Reference, which makes the coming FCS Seminar in October a great opportunity for all those affected by, or concerned about, terminal fraud to engage with EAST’.

This interactive event focuses on two key outputs of EAST EGAF – Guidelines regarding logical attacks on ATMs and standardised fraud definitions.  An introduction to the Group will be followed by a presentation of the latest EAST Fraud Statistics (H1 2018).  A session by Juan Jesús León Cobos of GMV will then focus on the evolution of cash-out/jackpotting attacks in Latin America, followed by a session by Europol’s Tobias Wieloch highlighting Guidelines on how to counter them.  A perspective on card shimming in the UK will then be given by forensic experts Brian Underhill and Nick Weber, followed by a session on the importance of standardising fraud definitions by Ben Birtwistle of RBS and Claire Shufflebotham of TMD Security. The event is co-located with RBR’s ATM & Cyber Security 2018 Conference.  See the full programme here.

Attendance at EAST EGAF meetings is limited, as it is a working group, and this EAST FCS Seminar enables wider participation and the opportunity for all attendees to engage with the Group and its organisers.


The Seminar is sponsored by:

 

 

 

 

India’s Cosmos bank suffers global ATM cash-out attack

India’s Cosmos cooperative bank has suffered a major global ATM cash-out attack losing Rs 94.42 crore (Euro 12 million approx) in 14,849 transactions between 11 August and 13 August 2018.  The illicit ATM withdrawals took place in at least 28 countries.

On 11 August hackers are believed to have stolen information of the bank’s Visa and Rupay card customers through a malware attack on its ATM (switch) server which led to an initial loss of Rs 80 crore.  According to local police 12,000 transactions were made using Visa cards, which saw Rs 78 crore illegally withdrawn from ATMs in 28 countries, while a further Rs 2 crore were transferred through 2,489 Rupay card transactions in India.

In a second attack on 13 August the hackers initiated SWIFT transactions and transferred Rs 13.92 crore to an account in a Hong Kong-based bank, from where the money was quickly withdrawn.

Cosmos Bank Chairman Milind A. Kale said  “We suspect the malware attack to be done from Canada. The money was withdrawn from ATM machines from 28 countries through around 12,000 international transactions and around 2,849 domestic transactions. The transactions were carried out using fake debit cards. The deposit of account holders is safe and intact. However, as a precautionary measure, we have stopped the online system for two days.”

This attacks comes just days after the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) issued a confidential alert, warning that cyber criminals were planning an unlimited global ATM cash-out operation.  More details of this can be found on the website Krebs On Security

EAST has worked with Europol to produce guidance and recommendations to counter logical attacks on ATMs, which are now available in four languages. These guidelines are under review and an updated version is expected to be released later this year.

EAST presents at Europol Training on Payment Card Fraud Forensics

card fraud forensics trainingOn 26 June 2018 EAST Development Director Rui Carvalho presented at the fourth edition of the Europol Training Course on Payment Card Fraud Forensics and Investigations at the Spanish National Police Academy in Ávila, Spain. His talk gave an overview of EAST and covered terminal and payment fraud in Europe from the perspective of the private sector.

The Europol training, which ran from 25 to 29 June 2018, covered a wide range of topics including cryptocurrencies, ATM malware, forensic tools for the examination of skimming equipment, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology, EU regulation in non-cash payment, and data breaches or cyber attacks.

The training course was attended by 74 Investigators, forensic experts, and future police officers from 27 countries in the European Union, as well as from Iceland, Gibraltar, Montenegro, Moldova, Canada, Ukraine and South Korea.  Presentations were given by 33 speakers from different law enforcement agencies, the European Commission, Europol and bodies from the private sector (including EAST) and academia.  Since the first training in 2015 over 200 international students have benefited from the training programme, which has been supported by EAST.

45th EAST Meeting hosted by EC3 at Europol

EC3The 45th Meeting of EAST National Members was hosted by the European Cybercrime Centre (EC3) at Europol on 6th June 2018. National country crime updates were provided by 21 countries, and a global update by HSBC.  Topics covered included payment fraud and the evolution of payment technology, ATM malware and logical attacks, terminal related fraud attacks and ATM related physical attacks.

EC3 presented on the latest initiatives and events relating to e-commerce fraud prevention, global airport actions (GAAD) to combat online fraud involving stolen or fake credit card data to purchase plane tickets, actions relating to virtual currencies, the Europol-ASEAN Strategic Payment Card Fraud Meeting, and provided updates on Advisory Group activities relating to Internet Security, Communication Providers and Financial Services.

Presentations were also given by the EAST Payments Task Force (EPTF) and the EAST Expert Group on ATM and ATS Physical Attacks (EGAP).  An update was given by the EAST Expert Group on All Terminal Fraud (EGAF).

EAST Fraud Update 2-2018 will be produced later this month, based on the national country crime updates provided at the meeting.  EAST Fraud Updates are available on the EAST Website to EAST Members.

The 46th EAST Meeting will be held in London on 9th October 2018 and will be followed by EAST FCS Seminars on 10th October 2018 at the same venue.